Prediabetes symptoms

What is Prediabetes?

Prediabetes is a condition that occurs when blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be considered type 2 diabetes. This occurs when the body doesn’t make enough or use insulin. It leads to the accumulation of glucose in the blood, which can be harmful to your body over time. People who have type 2 diabetes usually have prediabetes first.

What causes prediabetes?

Prediabetes occurs when the body doesn’t make enough or use insulin. It leads to the accumulation of glucose in the blood, which can be harmful to your body over time. The prediabetes is caused by multiple factors:

  1. Insulin Resistance: Insulin resistance, where the body’s cells become less responsive to insulin, is the main cause of prediabetes and results in the accumulation of glucose.

  2. Genetic factors: The risk of prediabetes is increased in individuals with a family history of diabetes.

  3. Obesity: Excess body weight increases the risk of insulin resistance, leading to prediabetes.

Risks of prediabetes

Prediabetes carries significant risks for future health complications.

  1. Lifestyle influence: Lack of physical activity and prolonged periods of inactivity can contribute to insulin resistance, leading to prediabetes.

  2. Poor Diet: Eating foods high in calories, processed foods and sugary beverages can cause insulin resistance and weight gain.

  3. Genetic factors: The risk of prediabetes is increased in individuals with a family history of diabetes.

  4. Age: Aging is associated with changes in metabolism, hormone levels and body composition, which can increase the risk of insulin resistance and prediabetes. Prediabetes can affect anyone at any age, but it is more common in those over 45.

  5. Ethnicity: Certain ethnic groups, including African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, Native Americans and Asian Americans, have a higher risk of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes compared to other populations.

  6. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hypertension (high blood pressure), and dyslipidemia (abnormal cholesterol levels), are associated with an increased risk of prediabetes.

  7. Gestational DiabetesHaving diabetes during pregnancy or giving birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds.

  8. Sleep Disorders: Conditions like obstructive sleep apnea.

Medical Assessment of Prediabetes

The signs of prediabetes is done by measuring blood sugar levels with blood tests. The tests listed below are frequently employed:

  1. Fasting Plasma Glucose Test: This test measures blood sugar levels after 12 12-hour overnight fasts. A fasting plasma glucose level between 100 and 125 mg/dL is indicative of prediabetes.

  2. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT): This test measures blood sugar levels before and after consuming a sugary beverage. A blood sugar level between 140 and 199 mg/dL after two hours of drinking the sugary drink indicates prediabetes.

  3. HbA1c Test: This test measures average blood sugar levels over the past two to three months. An HbA1c level between 5.7% and 6.4% is indicative of prediabetes.

Treatment of Prediabetes

Preventing the development of prediabetes into type 2 diabetes and lowering the risk of related type 1 diabetes complications  are the main objectives of treatment. Treatment strategies typically focus on lifestyle modifications and, in some cases, medication.

  1. Healthy EatingEating foods high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins and balanced carbohydrates in the meal can help control blood sugar levels and improve health. It’s also essential to follow portion sizes and consume fewer processed and sugary meals.

  2. Regular Exercise: Exercise on a regular basis can help to control weight, improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Try to exercise for at least 150 minutes a week, from moderate to intense.

  3. Weight control: If you become overweight or obese, losing added weight can significantly decrease your chance of getting diabetes. Blood sugar levels can be impacted by even small weight loss.

  4. Medication: In some cases, doctors may prescribe medication such as metformin to help lower blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of diabetes, particularly for individuals with risk factors or difficulty with glycemic control through lifestyle modifications.

  5. Monitoring and support: Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with doctors are essential for managing prediabetes effectively. Regular blood tests and checkups can be used to monitor the patient’s progress, identify any changes that may require a change in lifestyle or course of treatment, and provide necessary support and guidance.


Prediabetes is characterized by higher blood sugar levels than normal but not high enough to consider type 2 diabetes, often due to insufficient insulin production or utilization by the body. Analyze prediabetes symptoms  which is caused by various factors, including insulin resistance, family history, obesity and lifestyle choices. It serves as a crucial warning sign for potential health risks. Early diagnosis using blood tests like fasting plasma glucose test, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c test. Treatment focuses on lifestyle modifications like healthy eating, regular exercise, weight control and medication. Lifestyle modifications and regular monitoring are key to managing prediabetes and reducing the risk of progression to type 2 diabetes.