Insulin Adverse Reactions During Pregnancy

Diabetes free pregnancy


      Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder characterized by a common feature of increased levels of blood glucose (or blood sugar), which over time may lead to serious damage to the nerves, blood vessels, heart, and various organ systems of the body.

The most characterized feature of diabetes is insulin resistance by the Beta cells of the pancreas.


  1. One of the types of Diabetes Mellitus is Gestational Diabetes i.e., Diabetes during pregnancy.
  2. About 4% of pregnant women develop DM due to metabolic changes during pregnancy. Although they revert to normal glycemia (normal blood glucose) after delivery, these women are prone to develop DM later in their lives.


  • Type 1 D. M: 

      Type 1 diabetes is a condition that results from an abnormal immune response where certain cells called “T-cells” which are a part of the Beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed. Type 1 diabetes is based on the “gene-environment interaction” model i.e., individuals who are susceptible to certain environmental triggers develop resistance to the activity of Beta cells which in turn results in low or no production of insulin. Type 1 diabetes is strongly influenced by genetic predisposition but it does not follow any particular pattern of inheritance. 

  • Type 2 D. M: 

       Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous condition that is characterized by varying degrees of insulin resistance (where insulin rejects synthesis of carbohydrates) and beta-cell dysfunction, Beta cells are those cells that are part of the pancreas that produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes is commonly associated with obesity. 

        In type 2 diabetes, there are mainly two problems. The pancreas can not produce enough insulin (the hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into the cells). The cells do not respond properly to insulin and synthesize less sugar. Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes, but both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can begin during childhood and adulthood. Type 2 is more common in the older generation but due to the increase in the number of children with obesity, more cases of type 2 diabetes are seen in the younger generation.

  • Other specific types: 

Only 10% are affected by this type of D. M and this includes Genetic defects, endocrinopathies, etc.


  1. Treatment for Gestational diabetes depends on the signs and symptoms of the individual, the age, and the severity of the condition.
  2. To maintain blood glucose levels, medication that lowers blood sugar levels may be given in the form of tablets.
  3. A proper diet has to be followed.
  4. Exercise as prescribed by the doctor.
  5. For higher blood sugar levels insulin is required to be administered.


  •      Increased insulin leads to increased glucose in a baby’s system which may keep the lungs from growing fully. This can cause breathing problems in babies. This is mostly seen in babies born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. 
  •       If insulin is given in higher concentration then it may lead to hypoglycemia (decreased blood sugar level) which may lead to loss of consciousness, coma, severe and irreversible brain injuries, or death.


      While the right doses of insulin have no ill effects on the human body, higher doses can lead to severe conditions that may even result in death. Therefore all insulin dosages have to be prescribed by a qualified physician.